Pascal was one of the first computer languages I learned, back in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The Borland Turbo Pascal compiler
was really fast, and I once actually took a university course in Computer Science, where we wrote code in Pascal on Macintosh computers.
This was in 1996. A few years later, I had the opportunity to try Delphi 8(Octane), which among other things had an immensly
superior "Intellisense" solution.
This piece of code calls two subroutines in the original ZX Spectrum ROM. First it
calls CHAN-OPEN which sets the current output channel to number 2 (normal
screen output), and then it calls PRINT, which prints a string of characters
to the selected channel. To print this on a ZX Printer, simply select channel 3 instead.
Most of the structure of an HTML document, including the html, head and body elements, can be left
out without invalidating the document. Also, most block-level elements are self-closing. For instance,
the segment <p>Hello<div>World is perfectly equivalent to <p>Hello</p><div>World</div>, which can
sometimes be unintuitive, especially in combination with CSS or the querySelector function.
grey hairs to web developers everywhere, it is now a competent language in its own right. Combined with
initiatives such as node.js, it performs on par with most other system languages. The
code above works in your browser (printing to the developer console) as well as in node.js(printing
to your terminal output). And yes, you should always go for strict mode.
Even though PHP is mostly used for adding server-side functionality to web pages, PHP is
actually a self-containing language that can be run on a lot of different platforms, both
in a web server and completely stand-alone. When PHP is run inside a web server,
the echo function renders output to the
response of an HTTP request. When PHP is run from the command line, it prints to the console.
For writing desktop and server applications, C# has been my language of choice for over ten years now, both
for work and for side projects. I really like PHP too, but I don't think it can measure up to the maturity
of C#, even though PHP7 looks really nice. The size of the .NET Framework and all the open source NuGet
packages available really help focusing on what to do, instead of how to do it.
The C language is mother and grandmother of a whole range of modern languages, like C++,
continuing, and the latest version, from December of 2011, is called C11. C is
still in heavy use, mostly for embedded systems, realtime applications and operating systems on small devices.