Simplicity in software architecture


Written by Anders Marzi Tornblad

Published on

This is part 4 of the Getting into software architecture series. If you haven't read the first part, here it is: A primer for emerging software architects

Simplicity is not just an aspiration, but a necessity in software architecture. As tempting as it might be to design elaborate, feature-rich systems, the beauty and effectiveness of software lie in its simplicity. Overly complicated software designs not only inhibit innovation but can also lead to unnecessary complexity, technical debt, and security vulnerabilities. This article aims to highlight the necessity and benefits of simplicity at multiple layers of software development, from design to deployment.

Henrik JoretegHenrik Joreteg@HenrikJoreteg

If you don’t actively fight for simplicity in software, complexity will win.

…and it will suck.

The downside of complexity

To talk about the advantages of simplicity, we need to first understand the drawbacks of complexity in software. When we say a system is overly complex or over-engineered, it often implies a maze-like codebase, difficult-to-understand components, and rigid technology dependencies. This complexity can have several negative implications.

Difficult to change

Complexity often breeds rigidity, especially when it comes to implementing changes. The intricacy of a system's architecture can result in components being so interdependent that altering a single feature may require rewriting or adjusting large portions of the codebase. This convoluted entanglement of modules can turn a supposedly simple change into a mammoth task, increasing the potential for introducing new bugs and system instabilities.

Moreover, the time required to make these changes can skyrocket, having a direct impact on the project's cost and delivery timeline. Therefore, overly complex systems can inadvertently result in slower innovation, as the developers might be reluctant to introduce changes that would disrupt the system's fragile equilibrium. This can be detrimental in the fast-paced, agile world of technology, where adaptability is key to staying relevant.

Technology lock-in

The issue of technology lock-in can significantly stifle a the growth potential of a system. In overly complex systems, the architecture can become so intertwined with a particular technology stack that transitioning to a new one becomes almost impossible without a complete system overhaul. This "lock-in" doesn't just limit the ability to adapt to newer, more efficient technologies but can also pose a risk if the current technology becomes obsolete or unsupported.

Furthermore, being locked into a specific technology stack can have financial implications. For instance, if the system is tied to a proprietary technology, the costs could be high both in terms of licensing and the lack of alternatives. It can also impede access to a broader talent pool, as the technology choice might limit the developers available to work on the project. Consequently, this could slow development speed and affect the overall system's quality and evolution.

Steep learning curve

An overly complex software architecture can also pose significant challenges for onboarding new team members. The steep learning curve required to understand and navigate the intricate system can deter new developers and significantly extend the time it takes for them to become productive members of the team.

In addition, the need to comprehend both the overall system and the minute intricacies can often lead to frustration and confusion, potentially resulting in lower job satisfaction and higher turnover rates. This is not conducive to building a motivated, cohesive team. What's more, when developers struggle to understand the system, they are more likely to introduce errors, further compounding the system's complexity and potential for bugs.

Lastly, a complex system can hinder knowledge transfer, as it often leads to 'tribal knowledge', where only a few people understand the system thoroughly. This creates a risk for the organization if these individuals leave, potentially leaving a knowledge void that can be difficult and time-consuming to fill. Thus, the high learning curve associated with complex software architecture can have serious long-term implications for team dynamics and system quality.

Advantages of simplicity

Now that we have looked at the pitfalls of complexity, let's flip the coin and explore the benefits of simplicity in software architecture. In a nutshell, simplicity at every stage of the development lifecycle results in a more agile, efficient, and effective workflow, ultimately leading to a robust and reliable software system.


A crucial advantage of simplicity in software architecture is the enhanced maintainability it provides. With a simple, clean design, developers can navigate through the codebase with ease, swiftly identifying the areas that require attention. This means that when bugs do appear or when enhancements are required, the turnaround time is significantly reduced.

Moreover, simplicity lends itself to better code readability. Well-written, clean code that follows established conventions is easier to understand, reducing the time required to comprehend how different components function and interact. This not only makes maintenance tasks less daunting but also aids in the effective communication of ideas and solutions amongst the development team, thereby creating a more productive and collaborative working environment.

Less bugs and vulnerabilities

In software development, simplicity can often translate into increased security and fewer bugs. Complex systems with a lot of interdependencies are often a breeding ground for bugs, as the intertwined logic can result in unexpected behavior. In contrast, simple systems with well-defined components and interactions tend to have fewer points of failure, thus reducing the potential for bugs.

From a security perspective, simple systems are advantageous as they typically have a smaller attack surface. Every component in a system, every line of code, represents a potential vulnerability that attackers could exploit. By reducing the complexity, we minimize these potential entry points, making the system inherently more secure. Simplicity also facilitates security reviews and audits as the system is easier to comprehend and scrutinize in detail, ensuring no security loophole goes unnoticed.

Speed of development, maintenance and deployment

Simplicity is a key enabler for faster development cycles. A clear and straightforward design allows developers to focus on implementing functionality without having to navigate through a maze of complex interactions. This results in quicker development of new features and more efficient resolution of issues, as developers spend less time deciphering the system's complexities and more time writing valuable code.

The same applies to the system's maintenance. Simplicity allows for easier troubleshooting, as it's quicker to understand the system and identify potential problems. The benefits of simplicity are also realized during deployment. A simplified, automated CI/CD pipeline minimizes manual intervention, reducing the risk of human error and accelerating the deployment process. Consequently, developers can promptly deliver features and bug fixes to users, improving the overall user experience and the product's reputation.

Simplicity at all layers

Simplicity should be a guiding principle at all levels of software design, system architecture, and system deployment.

Software design

At the software design layer, simplicity should be prioritized. This could mean minimizing the number of abstractions and avoiding unnecessary levels of inheritance or interfaces, which can often lead to a more confusing and less readable codebase. While abstraction is a critical tool in a developer's toolkit, providing flexibility and modularity, it's essential to strike a balance and only use it where it genuinely adds value and improves the system's clarity.

A simple design also encourages the implementation of single-responsibility components, in line with the Single Responsibility Principle. These components have one clear purpose and thus are easier to understand, test, and maintain. It also enhances modularity and promotes code reuse, thereby improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the development process.

System architecture

In terms of system architecture, a move towards simplicity would mean having fewer components and "moving parts". The more elements within a system, the more communication points and potential failure points exist. Complex systems with too many interdependent components can be challenging to understand, troubleshoot, and maintain.

However, simplicity doesn't mean a sacrifice in functionality or performance. Architectural patterns like microservices or serverless can break down a complex system into manageable, independent components, each with its well-defined responsibilities. While these patterns come with their challenges, if used judiciously, they can provide a balance between system simplicity and functionality, reducing the overall system complexity without compromising on the system's capabilities.

System delivery

Aiming for simplicity should also extend to system delivery. The CI/CD (Continuous Integration/Continuous Delivery) pipeline, a critical part of modern software development practices, should be designed to be as simple and as automated as possible.

A straightforward CI/CD pipeline reduces the complexity involved in moving code from the developer's machine to the production environment. It minimizes manual intervention, which not only speeds up the deployment process but also reduces the risk of human error, leading to more reliable deployments.

Automation is another crucial aspect here. It enables frequent and consistent deployments, which can be especially beneficial in an Agile or DevOps setting where quick iterations are desirable. Automation also allows teams to catch and address issues early in the cycle, improving the software's quality and reliability. By adopting simplicity at the deployment stage, teams can achieve more predictable, reliable, and efficient deployments, leading to faster delivery of features and improvements to the end-users.

Striking a balance

It's important to remember that simplicity is a balance and a trade-off. Not all systems can be simplified without losing essential functionality or performance. However, as a software architect, it's your responsibility to strive for simplicity where possible.

Creating a simple design doesn't mean cutting corners or avoiding difficult problems. Instead, it's about understanding the complexities and distilling them into an understandable, manageable form. As Albert Einstein famously said, "Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler".

The pursuit of simplicity is not merely an aesthetic or philosophical quest but an essential strategy for effective, efficient, and maintainable software. The benefits are manifold: improved maintainability, fewer bugs, reduced security risks, faster development cycles, and an environment more welcoming to innovation and change.

In conclusion, the importance of simplicity in software architecture cannot be overstated. It's not just a desirable attribute but a fundamental tenet that drives robust, reliable, and efficient software systems. The beauty of simplicity lies in its power to unleash creativity, improve productivity, and ensure the long-term success of our software systems.

Further reading

Articles in this series: